Life And Death Of Ishwar Patel

Posted by Nipun Mehta on Jan 27, 2011
79353 reads  

[Ishwar Patel, and his wife Vasuda Patel]

When Ishwar Patel, a long-time inspiration of our service family, passed away on Dec 26, 2010, Guri and I sat for meditation.  Right after, I told Guri, "I think I should head to India."  Getting online to get my tickets, I received an unexpected email from a friend who tagged me with a round-trip ticket.  The timing was so uncanny, that I accepted it and soon left for India.

Ishwar-kaka is the father of my dear friend, Jayesh Patel.  He started volunteering with Gandhi's Sewadal at the age of 12.   When he encountered a painful experience around the taboos of scavengers who gathered human waste, Ishwar-kaka consciously dedicated his life to the work of sanitation and raising consciousness around related issues of "untouchability".  He was 16 years old.  To this day, more than 2.6 billion people in the world don't have toilets; the Ganges river has 1.1 million liters of raw sewage dumped into it every minute.  And that number would've been a whole lot higher if it weren't for a lifetime of Ishwar-kaka's service.  He built more than 200,000 toilets through 'Safai Vidyalaya' at the Gandhi Ashram and helped launch 118 organizations that would elevate the work of sanitation around the country.  
 
Being scientifically oriented, Ishwar-kaka surveyed habits of rural Indians and subsequently created unique toilet designs that served their needs.  For instance, he noticed that village women didn't use four-walled toilets because they could no longer walk together to the farms and have private, women-only community time; so he introduced small windows across the toilets and an "oatlo" (a community space) outside the toilets.  In the front yard of his office headquarters, he put up a "Toilet Park" that showcased many of these designs.  "People have rose gardens, but we have a toilet garden," he would proudly announce to his many visitors.  Commercial entrepreneurs made millions from his designs, but he refused to patent it because he always wanted it accessible for India's poorest.  From the Padma Shri to Mahatma Gandhi Award, Ishwar-kaka has received practically every major award in India.  After his passing, TV stations replayed many of his old interviews; I caught one statement that summed up his philosophy: "To build toilets is easy, but to shift people's mind and hearts is the real work.  Software is more important than hardware."

Well over ten thousand people attended Ishwar-kaka's funeral at the Gandhi Ashram.  Government officials had to shut down the street to manage the flow of traffic.  As everyone silently stood in line to pay the final respects, the magic of Ishwar-kaka was evident -- the richest men in the country stood next to human-waste scavengers next to powerful politicians next to reknowned Gandhians next to vegetable sellers next to his next-door neighbors next to kids who had merely read about him.  For a vast cross section of society, Ishwar Patel was a hero.

Also to be found in the funeral procession -- the *entire*  hospital staff, with whom Ishwar-kaka spent his final 12 days.  Although they encounter patient deaths everyday, something about this man propelled them to pay their respects.

When Ishwar-kaka was submitted to the hospital, on the morning of Dec 14th, doctors knew it was the beginning of the end.  His body had four kinds of stage-4 cancer.  He couldn't lie down at all.  "Imagine climbing up a steep mountain, and being out of breath.  That was his state 24-hours-a-day for the last 12 days," the doctor said.  And yet, no negativity.  At all.  Instead he was smiling, cracking jokes, and meeting hundreds of people who streamed through his room for one final interaction.  Instead of losing his clarity, he became more and more lucid towards the end.  When people asked him for his blessings, he frequently said a sentence or two that went straight to the heart of their spiritual journey.  Outside his hospital room, as many as twenty people would hold vigil throughout the nights.  Well wishers would come in and repeatedly do acts of kindness.  One person gave out flowers to every patient in the hospital.  Another swept the floors as a tribute.  A group of youngsters, painted the walls and decorated the terrace as a thank-you to the hospital.  Some sang songs.  One person gave away 1500 apples, because Ishwar-kaka loved apples.  "Create heaven wherever you are," Ishwar-kaka said once.  And that was exactly what was happening.

At one point, the 12 punctures on his body weren't responding well to external fluids, so the doctor had to cut a slit through his neck.  When asked for anesthesia, he simply said, "Oh, there's no need.  Go right ahead."  A rather surprised doctor did as instructed and noticed that Ishwarkaka didn't even blink an eye as he performed his operation.  After repeated encounters of utter detachment from the body, one of his caretakers asked Ishwar-kaka: "Your body is in shambles. Don't you feel any pain?"  He promptly responded: "In a young coconut, its shell and its inner substance are intertwined and can't be separated.  In a ripe coconut, they can be easily separated.  So I'm like a ripe coconut.  My mind is separate from the body."

Wise men say that you die the way you have lived.  Like a true Gandhian, Ishwar-kaka lived his whole life in service to others, and not in service to his senses.  As a result, when it was time to depart from his senses, he had no fear.  In fact, when Jayesh-bhai (his son) asked him, "Dad, are you afraid of death?", he said: "Not at all.  If it has to come tomorrow, let it come today."  He also didn't have much concern of his own legacy.  When Jayesh-bhai reflected on his concern that he may not be able to match his father's spirit of service or the carry on the organization in the same way, Ishwar-kaka was similarly free: "Don't worry about what others say. Always do what your inner voice tells you to, even if it upends an entire tradition. You have to bloom wherever you are planted.  Keep serving through small acts of love."

Ishwar-kaka carried himself with such boundless freedom precisely because his life was one giant practice in small-acts-of-love.  On Dec 13th, at his living memorial, Anar-ben (his daughter-in-law) moved everyone to tears with her first-hand stories.  In the early days of her marriage, Anar-ben recalled a time when she was doing the chores of her house despite having fever.  While she was sweeping that day, she turned around at one point to see Ishwar-kaka silently mopping the floor behind her.  Not only was it drastically counter-culture for a father-in-law to mop the floor in those days, but it was an act of subtle sensitivity.  No words were exchanged, but Anar-ben silently wept that day many decades ago -- and on Dec 13th when she retold the story.

That's the kind of life Ishwar-kaka lived.  Silent, effortless service.  "If an act leaves residue, it is not an act of service," he told one of his hospital guests.

As a profoundly filial son, Jayesh-bhai spent practically all of the last three months in unconditional service to his Dad.  He recalled: "Papa always thoughts of others first, his whole life.  It was no surprise that he passed away after the kids celebrated Christmas with him on 25th.  And he passed away on a Sunday, to make it most convenient for everyone to handle the final rites.  Many of us sensed that he endured the last several days of extreme physical pain, just so everyone felt satisfied and full.  His favorite phrase was "subbhecchha", meaning best-wishes.  He would smilingly yell that phrase everytime he walked into the house.  Constantly, he was giving his best wishes to everyone."

In early morning hours of Dec 26th, Ishwar-kaka's body gave in. All the machines in the hospital room showed a flat line.  Immediately, Jayesh-bhai summoned close family members and friends.  Perhaps about 20 folks were in the hospital room.  Jayeshbhai painfully closed his father's eyes.  Among those in the room, was Vasuda-kaki, the wife of Ishwar-kaka.  Perhaps irrationaly, Vasuda-kaki speaks to her husband: "For the last 52 years, every time we have parted ways, we have said Jai-Jalaram (an ode to the divine).  Please open your eyes to say Jai-Jalaram."  His body had practically no strength, doctors had declared him dead, his eyes were closed.  Yet, almost miraculously, Ishwar-kaka opened his eyes.  He smiled.  With deep compassion in his eyes, he looked at everyone.  Then he looked at his wife, one final time, and uttered,  "Jai-Jala" as he spoke his last words.

With the same gentle ease that he served, a 77 year old left his body on Dec 26th at 8:10AM.

Traditionally, the eldest son offers the cremation ashes to a holy river.  “He is everyone’s Dad,” Sanjay-bhai (his eldest son) declared.  Hence, in an absolutely unprecedented move of decentralization, a bus-load of 70 people carried his final rites to the Narmada river.  Ishwar-kaka would sometimes say, “You clean the outside world as a way to clean your mind.”  In place of rituals, all seventy of us took our brooms to clean up the filthy river banks.

As our minds purified, our hearts swelled in gratitude for having known a noble person like Ishwar Patel.

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Comments (88)

  • meghna wrote ...

    When you are even momentarily touched by someone so special, THAT shift happens.. It's difficult to express in words how it felt to know him and see him almost everyday. We have never heard a his voice go beyond a small whisper. And the smile - priceless. What an honor to have known him even if briefly and what a blessing to learn from him whenever we could. He was truly his presence :)

  • Amit wrote ...

    For a man whose words could probably never due true justice this post is an incredibly beautiful tribute to the great man that Ishwar-kaka is (not was because his spirit lives strong in all of us that know him). If we could all live even a fraction of the life that Ishwar Kaka led, just imagine the the positive impact it would have on this world. Thank you for sharing. Jai Sita Rama Laksman Hanuman! Jai Jalaram!

  • nisha wrote ...

    For those of us who wished to be there, this transportation is a consolation. Thank you Nipun..

  • sriram wrote ...

    nipunbhai - beautiful words describing a beautiful person.

  • Yashesh wrote ...

    Dear Nipun - It is difficult to express in words the sorrow I feel at Ishwarkaka's passing away. Thank you for bringing to us so vividly his last moments.

    My utterly humble pranaam to kaka for living a life so pure and so selfless. Ishwarkaka (true to his name) remains a divine presence in our life even after his bodily separation. Our greatest tribute to him would be in helping his efforts continue, in whatever way shape or form. Jai Jalaram.

  • Mariette wrote ...

    It is times like this that I am deeply thankful to have been touched by Ishwardada, Jayeshbhai and the entire Manav Sadhna family. No words describe the daily impact he - and often through the others as well - has. While Ishwardada will be missed, there is no doubt he says with us in so many ways. Thank you Nipun for being a connector in these stories.

  • Madhu wrote ...

    So many inspiring memories of Ishwarkaka. Here's a priceless video of Ishwarkaka singing a sanitation song ...

  • Shalini wrote ...

    Nipun, thanks for sharing this. Moved beyond words.

  • Shail wrote ...

    Nipun, what a wonderful tribute for such a blessed soul. His work and words of wisdom will live forever in all of our hearts! :)

  • Paul wrote ...

    What a beautiful and inspiring tribute. Thank you very much. Kindness, compassion, and service to others: this is what the world needs more of...

  • Marsha wrote ...

    What a true Yogi he was. I came to know him through your loving words about him, Nipun, having never met him. His gentleness, understanding, and service to others are an inspiration to us all. Thank you.

  • Somik wrote ...

    Nipun, thank you for sharing this!

  • Prakash wrote ...

    Wow! - what a practice of detachment! - "In a young coconut, its shell and its inner substance are intertwined and can't be separated. In a ripe coconut, they can be easily separated. So I'm like a ripe coconut. My mind is separate from the body."

    Deeply moving, thank you Nipun for being the connecting thread.

    May Ishwardada's soul rest peace and tranquility.

    "Jai Jayaram"

  • Jagdish P Dave wrote ...

    I am deeply touched and inspired by reading this moving and uplifting real life and death story. I had the privilege of meeting Ishwarkaka and Jayeshbahi in Gandhi Ashram three years ago when I was in Ahmedabad. I instantly felt the presence of Gandhiji's spirit in both of them. It was indeed a pilgrimage. Aum: Shanti,Shanti, Shanti.

    Jagdishbahi Dave

  • Sreekanth wrote ...

    Such an inspiring soul with a compassionate smile. to cleanse the world. Thanks for this touching write-up.

  • gayathri wrote ...

    May Ishwarkaka send more souls like him to this earth...Long Live Ishwarkaka..
    Thank you nipun for sharing as always...

  • Rajen Thapa wrote ...

    Nipun ji,
    Thank you so much for writing about Ishwar Kaka.His life will inspire millions of people in the future also.People should write more about these great people.

  • Ananthoo wrote ...

    Thanks for a cute write up Nipun. what an inspiring man he was. I have linked this in my blog.

  • Shyam Parande wrote ...

    People like Ishwarkaka make this world a beautiful place. Congratulations to Nipun for writing this inspiring piece. Kudos

  • Beena Puthalat wrote ...

    O! God! Please continue to send such divinely examples to earth to guide us and motivate us.
    Jai Ishwarbhai

  • Beena Puthalat wrote ...

    Dear Nipun,
    I happened upon your site whilst reading about Vimalatai.Since then I have been ever grateful to you and this site for the exemplary articles posted and reached to us.
    Thank you again for introducing Ishwarbhai and his ilk to us.

  • Laura wrote ...

    Dear Nipun,
    Thank you for the beautiful homage. It helps and inspires my soul tremendously to read about someone such as Ishwar Patel.

  • k r k sastri wrote ...

    words are just pale ! <<< krks >>>

  • Barkatali wrote ...

    The picture of Ishwar Kaka speak a thousand word.

  • ranjana bhargava wrote ...

    Jayesh Bhai and Anar Ben Simple living and grander of the peacock is what reminds me of Kaka. He told Prashant the first day you can live here. PATANG is a tribute to him and all of you.
    May all of us live in giving love and joy by changing each other to share and work with a devotion-no expectations except do what one can do best. At the screening in AHMEDABAD thats what I embraced when I hugged you. Jai Shri Krishna, Jay jaymal Prashant devotes his life like you and so many others.

  • andy wrote ...

    I never comment! I felt I needed to here. After reading about this guy I felt a new hope rising in me. I wonder what I will do with it!

  • Viral wrote ...

    Really very touching. Words don't justify it fully but speaks a lot about such a wonderful person and his thoughts.

  • Nipul Shah wrote ...

    Incredible story. I wish I could emulate even a samll part of his life as a homage to him.
    Jai Jalaram

  • Akanksha wrote ...

    Such a moving post, Nipun. And so inspiring a man. May his soul rest in peace and his spirit live on.

  • richard wrote ...

    Thank you, Nipun.

  • Nayanamasi wrote ...

    Nipun, what a beautiful way to say goodbye to a great soul and yet keeping him alive in your reader's heart.Beautiful.

  • shanti savla wrote ...

    Thank you for sharing wonderful story of
    great soul....

  • nirmal bhattacharya wrote ...

    Thank you, Nipum, for sharing such noble person.

  • Nikesh Patel wrote ...

    Nipun - thanks for sharing this! Very inspiring.

  • navin sata wrote ...

    Ishvarbhai life reflects true karma yogi the way he departed reflects stithipragna according to bhagvad gita .shri ishvarbhais life worke reminds me saint kabirs doha - kabira jab tum jag me aaye jag hase ham roae aaisi karni kar chale jag roae ham hase ishvarbhais life will serve mankind guiding light for generations to come millions of PRANAAM to this gretsoul JAI JALARM

  • Owen wrote ...

    A superb soul. May there be many more born of like inspiration!

    Thank you Nipun!

  • Nitesh wrote ...

    I met Ishwar Kaka several times surfing my 7 years stay in Ahmedabad and one thing which I can say blindly that "I have never met a person like him in my life till now! And every time, I used to meet him - there will be new spirit within him to work for people"

    Thanks Nipun bhai sharing his story with the world.

    We will miss you Ishwar kaka.......

  • Vaidehi wrote ...

    Words cannot worthily describe the person, Ishwar Kaka... But, yes, Nipunbhai you have been a Good Samaritan by sharing this write-up and spreading 'goodness'

  • Khushroo Poacha wrote ...

    Thank you Nipun for this. I have been waiting to meet your since the last 10 years. Dont know when the time will come. Somehow i hope this mails reaches you. Metta Khushroo

  • John Whittaker wrote ...

    Nipun, I have never written to you, but how can I not do so now -- after your profoundly moving words about Ishwar Patel. Such stories change our lives.

  • Trupti wrote ...

    Ishwar Dada is no doubt a great man! Some one like me who know very little about him can feel the intensity of his karma. He brought a difference, a positive change to the people's life connected with him. That is what I learnt from him...be the change you wish to see in the world. On the day we (me & my husband)learnt about his death...we decided to try to imitate his action in some way...we decide to sponsor the education of my maid...she is so happy...it gives me immense satisfaction...I can imagine the amount of satisfaction Ishwar dada had from his journey of life through his action. I sense his smile from heaven when I acted upon my wish of educating my maid in due respect for him.Ishwar Dada lives in our heart.

  • BHARAT SAVLA wrote ...

    Ishwarkaka was a living legend.
    let us all learn to live life him even in a small way. It will make this world a better place to live in. Thanks, Nipun, for this lovely, inspiring article.

  • Michael F. Mosqueda wrote ...

    No words could ever express how much he lives not how he died. We will remember him simply as Gods precious work of art. Just do what he said "bloom wherever you're planted and keep serving through small act's of love" Create heaven wherever you are.

  • Dolly wrote ...

    Beautiful
    May Ishwar Patel's soul rest in peace.

  • Sharad Desai wrote ...

    A glorious example of "Nishkam Karma"
    A service to Humanity is THE service to God.
    Our Pranam to such an enlightened SOUL.

  • karthik wrote ...


    Thank you Nipunbhai for so eloquently sharing Ishwar-kaka's life with us. May his soul rest in peace and the work he started stand for a long time as a testament of his wonderful life.

  • Dilip Patel wrote ...

    Truly a moving account. Ishwarkakas don't die. They remain alive in their works, and inspire us.

    Thanks Nipun.

  • John Halderman wrote ...

    A great man, an awesome example of humanity at it's best. Half way around the world, I am grateful to hear of his service.
    I thank him.

  • Bubakar Sillah wrote ...

    May Almighty Allah bless this exemplary soul

  • Kirk Wilson wrote ...

    Ishwar Patel inspires us all. Now each of us can take just a small step in the direction of humble service. Why not?

  • Ram wrote ...

    Truly Touching, Truly Inspiring. Thank you Nipun and others.

  • Chad Harper wrote ...

    I hope this song honors this great man! It is from the center of my heart. It has inspired me to be born again. I hope you guys enjoy.

  • av wrote ...

    Nipun bhai, I have read and re-read this story, it has moved me so much. It is heartening to know that such Karma-yogis lived in this age.

  • bhanu wrote ...

    "LIFE CHANGING INSPIRATION!" that words cannot describe...

    Can Only B Felt! May the Good Lord bless his soul.

    Tnx a ton Nipun.


    Stay On! Stay Bright!

  • mudita wrote ...

    It's such a touching story. More touchng that it's a real story. It moved me to tears to feel the selflessness of this great man.

  • suryanarayanan wrote ...

    it is because of peole like Iswar kaka Indians can walk with their heads high.

  • Diane Baxter wrote ...

    Its because of beings like Iswar Kaka that all of us can walk a little higher. We all get to take from him the guidance he offers and live to a higher personal standard. In open gratitude.

  • Lt Col P V Shirgaonkar ( Retd) wrote ...

    I am deeply touched by reading this story of Ishwarkaka. When we want to work for humanity no work is small. The world is a place worth living because of such great Souls. He rightly told his Son to do small good acts in a big way. Koti Koti Pranam to such noble Son Of India. PV Shirgaonkar,28 July 2011.

  • Kevin McGinn wrote ...

    Thank you Ishwar Patel. I forgive myself for judging myself as less than you.

  • Sarah wrote ...

    Thank you. I am moved and inspired by this loving teacher.

  • Col Neeraj Roy wrote ...

    Ishwar Kaka reminds me of Anna Hazare when I first interacted sometimes in 94-95. My respects to him since I have experienced his contribution to society whilst as a kid

  • zarin dabu wrote ...

    Hats Off to Mr.Ishwar Patel & family. May his soul rest in peace.

  • kailoma wrote ...

    Heaven welcomed a beautiful angel home and the world wept for the loss of Ishwar kaka.. God bless this beautiful man and may his spirit rest in peace..

  • Deenadayal wrote ...

    Its a real inspiration to know about a contribution of greatman. Spreading such realtime stories of such great persons to all will be yet another positve activity which will inspire lot of people to contribute in their own way. Deenadayal

  • Kaushik wrote ...

    It is not celebrity on media who can touch your hearts and influence the way you think, it is the work like this of unsung heroes which can bring about tangible change.

  • christopher Kontoh wrote ...

    The righteous man live not long, I wept when I finish reading the this man story. If we have people like him, heaven will be on earth

  • Sachin Jain wrote ...

    Humbled and inspired. Thank you.

  • karine wrote ...

    thank you for sharing.......

  • Dallas wrote ...

    Jai-Jala

  • Rupal wrote ...

    Thank you so much for sharing this article. I felt I wanted to know him and felt a great loss of a great life. Grateful to know such souls exist. Thanks for opportunity to know him even through words. Great website!

  • Lalita wrote ...

    It is by wonderful serendipity that I came across your article on Ishwar Kakaji...13 months after his passing and from a different dimension he reaches out. He still works quietly; uplifting, energizing and shifting peoples minds and hearts as seen by reading all the commments made by people all over the world.What a love story...loving the unlovables, serving the untouchables and with his last breath lovingly leaving his wife with Jai-Jala!I am blessed to happen upon your inspirational article and grateful to all who added videos of him showing him multi dimensionally. I had some decisions to make and the advice he gave his son was was what I needed to be reminded... follow the inner voice no matter what. Thank you God for bringing me to this page, thanks Nipun for your evocative article and blessings to Yasuda kakiji, the family and all who miss his compassionate and exemplary life.

  • Vin wrote ...

    "Karmayogi" of highest order. Reflecting on myslf, feel so small in my own eyes. Inspirational indeed for all of us.

  • Most beautiful wrote ...

    For me this is real charity...

  • DHANNYA wrote ...

    Truly inspiring to read about IshwarKakaji. The beautiful words you wrote about kakaji moved me. I can now only imagine meeting this great soul would have been so profound and heartening. I guess all of you who have met him, known him and learn't from him are lucky.

  • D.K.Oza wrote ...

    I met Ishwar Kaka at sabarmati. What a memorable meeting it was. D.K.Oza

  • Yogendra wrote ...

    Thank you Nipun...no words...just the tears in my eyes.

  • v. dixon wrote ...

    What an inspiration! We all can do some type of small acts of kindness. Look at the blessings so many receive when we pay it forward (we do something nice for someone without expecting any compensation; the receiver in turn does something nice for someone else, and so on).

  • Anjana wrote ...

    Truly touching and moving!

  • Sandhan wrote ...

    What a beautiful soul to help people think differently about caste and tradition... especially in a country such as India where this has been such a centuries old practice.
    Having lived some time myself in India I have only praise and admiration for a man I not only had never met but never even heard of...after reading this post it doesn't surprise me at all that 10,000 people came to his funeral.

  • Prahlad wrote ...

    This is Yogah karmasu kaushalam
    Excellent life

    Sairam

  • Rika wrote ...

    Nipun g thanks for sharing this. Moved beyond words.hv touch my heart..hat's off 2 lovely person..RIP..

  • Denis Khan wrote ...

    The world needs dreamers and the world needs doers. But above all, the world needs dreamers who do.- Sarah Ban Breathnach -

  • SURENDRA KAPADIA wrote ...

    NIPUN AMAZES ME. TO ME HE IS A LIVING EMBODIMENT OF KINDNESS AND SELFLESSNESS. MAY GOD BLESS HIM SO THAT HE CAN SERVE FOR A LONG LONG TIME. THIS WORLD CAN TAKE ALL THE ACTS OF KINDNESS THAT HE CAN GIVE.

    AMEN

  • Mahesh Maheta wrote ...

    Although Born in Valsad Gujarat, I did not learn anything more about Gandhi than what was brainwashed into me by schools. The real light of Gandhi came to me through Narankaka in his Gandhikatha, which i helped organized. Ishwarkaka came in my life during a vist to Gandhi Ashram for some continuity of Gandhikatha event, in December 2009. We had some discussion on My Voice is my Life. Later he asked me to join him with a cup of tea with such a love that I enjoyed whole heartily because it came with his company. I could see love flowing out of his eyes, speech and acts.
    I see similar trend in Nipun Mehta in continuing legacy of our former Gandhian followers through his deeds. Keep up the good work; You are our Gandhi of the current Generation, in my heart.

  • Preeta Pant Vyas wrote ...

    I have met Jayesh Bhai very recently and did not have the privilege of meeting his father. But Jayesh bhai has the inner strength and love and compassion for all...It shines through in his interactions with one and all..His father's legacy is continuing through Jayesh Bhai.

  • Jagdish Barot, Canada wrote ...

    It was my fortune to have opportunities of working with this great soul. I could not see Mahatma Gandhi but could see such noble Gandhian people. We miss Him more when the Nation is committed to Swachch Bharat Abhiyan. I am sure his work will inspire us to complete his mission. My salute to Him and pray for His eternal peace. Bharat Mata Ki Jay. Jagdish Barot, Canada

  • Niharika wrote ...

    Thank you Nipun for sharing so vividly, what a great soul.... even reading of him moves one to tears
    ... made of something else..

  • R.K.Sama wrote ...

    I had opportunity to be in his company for last 20 years. He was always focused and committed to the cause for which he lived for his life time. He made a most difficult work so simple. He remained a simple man and never lost hope. A great soul who touched the life of a most deprived community. You could visualize through him the pain of these untouchables for whom he did work to give dignity through a professional approach.